Alenson, Hans. Minister of the Waterlandians in Delft and Haarlem; died about 1630.

Augsburg Confession. The most authoritative confession of the Lutheran Church, written by Melanchthon, 1530.

Baum, Johann Wilhelm. Professor in the Protestant Seminary (Reformed) in Strasburg.

Beza, Theodor. (1519-1605). The successor of John Calvin in Geneva.

Blaurock, Georg. One of the founders of the first church of the Swiss Brethren in Zurich. He was burned at the stake at Clausen in Tirol, in 1529. See Martyrs' Mirror, p. 415.

Bossert, Gustav. A well known Lutheran historian of Germany.

Brandt, Geeraerdt. Church historian of the Remonstrants in Holland in the eighteenth century.

Bucer, Martin. (1491-1551). The most noteworthy of the German state-church reformers, besides Luther.

Calvin, John. (1509-1564). The Reformer of French Switzerland. Founder of Reformed and Presbyterian churches.

Capito, Wolfgang. (1478-1541). Zwinglian reformer in Strasburg.

Carlstadt, Andreas. (1480-1541). At first Luther's co-worker in Wittenburg, and later his opponent. Luther's acceptance of the Roman doctrine of the sacraments as means for regeneration and forgiveness of sin was offensive to him. He died as professor in Basel.

Charles V. (1500-1558). Emperor of Germany, ruler of the Netherlands and King of Spain.

Cloister. A convent or monastic establishment; the living place of a community of monks or nuns.

Cornelius, Carl Adolf. Born 1819. Professor of history at Bonn and Munich. A Catholic whose writings on Anabaptist history are distinguished for impartiality and fairness.

Cramer, A. M. Mennonite minister at Middelburg in the Netherlands. Historian.

Cramer, Samuel. (1842-1913). Son of A. M. Cramer. Professor in the Mennonite Theological Seminary in Amsterdam.

Denck, Hans. (1495-1527). An Anabaptist leader who later advocated "the middle way" or "stillstand." He died in 1527.

Detmer, Heinrich. Head Librarian in the Royal Library at Munster.

Diet. The administrative assembly of the old German Empire, consisting of representatives of the various provinces and free cities.

Doopsgezinden. The official name of the Mennonites of the Netherlands, though popularly they are known as Mennonites. The word means those who follow the doctrine of (believers') baptism.

Ecumenical Council. A general council or synod of the bishops and theologians of the early Catholic Church.

Egli, Emil. Professor of church history in Zurich and editor of the new edition of Zwingli's works. He published two important books on the history of the Swiss Anabaptists.

Elector. One of the (seven) princes of the old German Empire entitled to choose the Emperor.

Electorate. A state or province ruled by an elector.

Estates. The representatives of the old German Empire.

Flemish Mennonites. The Mennonites of Flanders, or those who, in consequence of the extraordinarily bloody persecution prevailing in that province fled from Flanders to other parts.

Franck, Sebastian. (1499-1543). A Come-outer of the Reformation times. He rejected the ordinances and all church organization. A noteworthy historian.

Geneva. A city in French Switzerland; for many years the scene of John Calvin's labors and the center of the Calvinistic Reformation.

Grebel, Conrad. The most distinguished of the group of men who founded the first congregation of the Swiss Brethren at Zurich, Switzerland, in 1525. He died in prison at Maienfeld, in 1526.

Hardenberg, Albert Rizaeus. Reformer of Bremen. Died in 1574.

Hegler, Alfred. Professor of Protestant theology at Tübingen in Wurtemberg.

Herzog-Hauck Theological Encyclopedia. The great Protestant Encyclopedia. The New Schaff-Herzog Religious Encyclopedia is based on it.

Hierarchy. A body of ecclesiastical rulers; the Roman priesthood.

Hoekstra, Sytse. (1822-1898). Professor in the Mennonite Theological Seminary in Amsterdam.

Hofmann, Melchior. The founder of the Melchiorites or Covenanters. He was imprisoned in Strasburg from 1533 to his death (1543 or 1544).

Holland. In Menno Simons' time this name was applied to the northwestern part of the Netherlands, not to the Netherlands in general.

Honorius. (384-423). Emperor of the Western Roman Empire.

Hosius, Stanislaus. (1504-1579). Cardinal and prominent Roman Catholic theologian.

Host. The wafer used instead of the bread in Mass as well as in the communion service of the Roman Catholic Church. The host is believed to be Christ Himself and hence is worshiped. The elevation of the host is a feature of Mass, the host being held up and presented before the congregation which worships it in kneeling posture.

Hubmaier, Balthasar. The most distinguished writer among the Anabaptists of South Germany, Switzerland and Moravia. His followers constituted a distinctive party of Anabaptists. He was burned at the stake in or near Vienna in 1528

Hunzinger, A. W. Lutheran theologian in Hamburg, Germany.

Huterites. Named after Jacob Huter who was burned at the stake at Innsbruck in Tyrol, in 1536. They differed from the Mennonites and Swiss Brethren principally in having their possessions in common. They have a number of churches in South Dakota and Montana. Not all their congregations adhere to the communistic life.

Krauth, Heinz. Anabaptist martyr who was beheaded at Jena in Saxony, on January 26, 1536.

Kuehler, W. J. The successor to Professor S. Cramer in the Mennonite Seminary in Amsterdam.

Kuijper, Abraham. The noted Dutch Reformed theologian, former prime minister of the Netherlands.

Landgrave. The title of the ruler of Hesse.

a'Lasko, John. (1499-1560). A native of Poland where he labored as a reformer in the later years of his life.

Loserth, Johann. Distinguished Protestant church historian of Austria.

Manz, Felix. One of the founders of the first Swiss Brethren congregation in Zurich. He suffered martyrdom by drowning at Zurich, in 1527. See Martyrs' Mirror, p. 400.

Marbeck, Pilgram. After the martyrdom of Michael Sattler, in 1527, the most prominent minister among the Anabaptists in South Germany. He labored, principally, at Strasburg and Augsburg.

Matthys, Jan. A baker of Haarlem in Holland who, with John of Leyden, became the founder of the Munsterite sect. He lost his life during the siege of Munster in 1534.

Melanchthon, P. (1497-1560). Luther's most distinguished helper in the task of the church reformation. Professor in Wittenberg.

Melchiorites. The followers of Melchior Hofmann; also known as Covenanters.

Menius, Justus. (1499-1558). The reformer of Thuringia. He wrote a number of books against the Anabaptists.

Micron, Martin. (1522-1559). Born in Flanders, probably at Ghent. Labored as Zwinglian Reformer in London, Frankfort a. M. and Norden in East Friesland.

Moravia. Province of Austria, east of Bohemia.

Musculus, Wolfgang. (1497-1563). Reformed theologian. Pastor in Strasburg and Augsburg; since 1549 professor of theology in Bern.

Netherlands. In the Reformation period the Netherlands comprised modern Belgium as well as Holland.

Protestant. In 1529, at the Diet of Speier, the Lutheran and Zwinglian Estates protested against a plan which was designed eventually to suppress the Reformation, hence they were called Protestants and this designation has become the usual name of Christian professors not belonging to the Roman Catholic or to one of the Eastern churches.

Reformed Church. In certain countries the followers of Ulrich Zwingli and John Calvin are known as the Reformed, while in other countries they are called Presbyterians. In America the Reformed and Presbyterians are distinct denominations.

Rothmann, Bernt. The theologian of the Munsterites.

Sacrament in both kinds. In the Roman Church the cup is withheld from the laity under the pretext that the bread or host is the body of the Lord and that the body is not bloodless, hence the blood is given although the cup is withheld. The expression "both kinds" refers to the cup and bread.

Saints. In the language of Scripture the believers are the saints. In Roman Catholic theology the saints are those who have been canonized or declared holy by the pope and to whom prayer is to be offered.

Scheffer, Jakob Gysbert de Hoop. (1819-1893). Professor in the Mennonite Theological Seminary in Amsterdam. The most distinguished Mennonite historian.

Schwenckfeld, Caspar. (1490-1561). He is considered the founder of the Schwenckfelder Church, although he did not desire to found a church. His followers organized themselves after his death.

Servetus, Michael. (1511-1553). A Spaniard who was condemned to death and burned at the stake in Geneva for various unorthodox teachings.

Speier or Spires. A city in the Palatinate where the German Diet convened repeatedly in the Reformation period.

Strasburg. A city on the upper Rhine. The capital of Alsace.

Theodosius II. (401-450). Emperor of the Eastern Empire (Capital Constantinople).

Theodosius III. Eastern emperor who ruled 716-717.

Thirty Years' War. (1618-1648). A religious war, at least in its first period, between the Catholic provinces of Germany headed by the Emperor, and the Lutheran and Zwinglian states. The latter were aided by (Lutheran) Sweden and (Catholic) France.

Trijpmaker, Jan. Jan Volkerts of Embden was a brogue (holl. trijp) maker by trade and was called by this name.

Transubstantiation. The doctrine that the Bread and Wine is converted into the Body and Blood of Christ in the Eucharist or Mass.

Tschackert, Paul. Professor of theology (Protestant) in the University of Göttingen.

Unitarian. One who, unduly emphasizing the unity of God, denies His Trinity, and hence also denies the deity of Christ. The Unitarians believe in Jesus of Nazareth as a great moral teacher, but not as the Savior.

Valentinian III. Emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 425 to 455.

Van Braght, Thieleman Janz. (1625-1664). Minister of the Mennonites of Dort in the Netherlands. A prominent conservative leader and staunch opponent of the new views advocated by Galenus Abrahams. He presided over the great conference held in June, 1660, at Leyden. Author of the "Martyrs' Mirror" and of a catechism which was used till the middle of the nineteenth century by conservative Mennonites.

Volkerts, Jan. Baptized by Melchior Hofmann in Embden, labored at Embden and Amsterdam, suffered martyrdom December 5, 1531.

Vos, K. Mennonite minister at Middelstum in the Netherlands.

Waterland. A district in the northern part of the province of Holland in the Netherlands.

Wittenberg. City in Saxony. The center of the Lutheran Reformation. Both Luther and Melanchthon were professors in the university at this place.

Wheel. The expression "the wheel" is used in Menno Simons' writings for "breaking on the wheel" which was a form of torture and execution. The victim was placed on a cart-wheel and his limbs tied to the spokes. On the slowly revolving wheel his bones were broken with blows of an iron bar.

Wizel, George. A Lutheran theologian of the Reformation period who returned into the fold of the Roman Church.

Woodsawer, (Houtzager) Peter. Mentioned in Obbe Philips' "Confessions." His occupation was that of a wood sawer; his family name is not known. Dirck Philips was baptized by him (1533).

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